Timeline: 1834-1999

1834- Original mill built along Snake Creek 1842-Bowen Brothers acquire the mill in the Georgia land lottery

1849- Initial employees consist of women and young girls

1850/1- Original mill is destroyed by a fire, the Bowen brothers abandon the business

1855- William Amis rebuilds the mill and begins the construction of Antioch Primitive Baptist church

1855- Civil War begins; the mill is producing coarse yarns

7/13/1864- Moore’s Bridge skirmish, near the mill, Confederates hold back Union troops

1865-End of the Civil War

1866- William Amis obtains a charter for Carroll Manufacturing, mill processes wool & cotton yarn in to cloth. Kellog & Co. build a paper mill nearby.

1870-Census data shows 17 females between the ages of 10 & 30 and 9 males between 10 & 50 working the cotton mill. 4 white males, 2 blacks, and 1 female work in the paper mill. The other 10 residents are male, ranging from lawyers, merchants, carpenters, and watchmen.

1872- Meningitis spreads through the village, many residents die

1878- William Amis sells the mill to Arthur Hutcheson who renames it Hutcheson Manufacturing. Two new pulp mills, one grist mill, and two dams are built. New equipment for the textile mill is installed including incandescent lighting, mill homes are constructed, and an additional church is built. Doctors, teachers, and skilled mechanics are brought into the village. There are 210 to 240 individuals employed at the cotton and paper mills.

1880- Census data shows:
D. W. Brown works at Gun Mill age 46
Benjamin F. Brown works in saw mill age 18
Thomas Benjamin works within mill age 11
Thomas Meran, boarder working in mill age 24
Thomas Daugherty works at mill age 26
Geo. T. Pittman within mill age 22
George Simmons within mill age 24
Mark Hanson listed sawyer age 22
John Smith works in mill age 14
Peter McCean cotton factory guard age 45
Polly Bryant in cotton factory age 63
Jackson Thompson foreman cotton factory age 26
Shelton Cooper minister age 78
Thomas J. Stephens engineer age 19
Boyington sawyer age 31
Hugh Wilson works at saw mill age 30 (black)
William H. Brown works in mill age 36

October 22, 1880-Editorial from the Carroll County Times proclaims"every daughter ought to be taught to earn hear own living"


1881/2- Sources indicate the mill is three and a half stories tall, employees forty workers, and contains 2,000 spindles and fourteen cards. The mill produces warp & bunch yarns, cotton sheeting and shirting.

4/29/1887- Sixty cases of measles are reported in the village. Many children are affected and die later that week.

6/7/1889- Boiler room at the paper mill on Snake Creek explodes injuring 12 workers.

1893- Corinth Baptist, company sponsored mill church, is established.

April 5, 1895- owner, Arthur Hutcheson dies. He leaves the mill, which is employing 240 hands and running 5,000 spindles, and 1,300 acres, to his family.

June 1897- additional floor added to the picker room

circa 1900, Hutcheson's Factory renamed Banning Mill

1900 census data shows there were forty-three cotton mill employees living within Banning’s mill village. Twenty-three workers were older males, while the remaining twenty were young women ranging in age from nine to thirty-five. Employed male heads of households ranged in age from twenty-nine to fifty, while their younger counterparts (mostly sons) ranged from seven to twenty-three years old. The mean age of males within the factory was thirty.

1906- large addition added to the cotton mill. Carding is done on the first floor, spinning on the 2nd, and winding on the third. The wheel house is also enlarged.

1909- paper mill on Snake Creek burns and owners are forced to abandon the property

1910 census shows about 120 individuals employed at Banning’s cotton factory or hosiery mill. Of these 120, fifteen are known to have been heads of households (fathers), while three were wives. The fifty-four males ranged in age from ten to fifty-five. The thirty-nine female employees ranged in age from eleven to sixty-nine. The mean age of male workers employed at either Banning’s cotton mill or hosiery mill was twenty-one, while the mean age for females was nineteen.

April 1911- an all day singing at the Baptist church at Banning with preaching at 11 o'clock by Rev. J. H. Layton

December 1911- 73 male voters from Banning participate in the primary election

January 1912- A letter from Banning proclaims, "People ought to take more interest in education than they do; it is all that they can give their children that may not be taken away from them; lawyers may get lands or money left them."

June 10 , 1913- Carroll County Times reports "The Banning base ball team won the game from Whitsburg here Sat. 9 & 8, after a pretty pitchers' battle between Barney Henry & Fred Tenny. Henry held the Whitsburg team to two hits, struck out 14 men & walked one. Tenny allowed one hit & truck out 8 men. Batters for Banning- Henry & Smith; for Whitesburg, Tenny & Pate".

May 7, 1914- Carroll County Times reports, "Mr. J. R. Lassetter was down here Sat. looking after his big plantation. We were surprisingly shocked at Mr. Lassetter's defeat for Tax Collector. Mr. Lassetter was for a long time resident of this place & while here was Sec. & Treasurer of the Hutcheson Manufacturing Co. for 20 yrs."

May 14, 1914- Carroll County Times reports, "The Banning Nine, under the escort of umpire A.W. Stubbs & Mr. A. O. Colquitt, played Whitesburg boys last Sat. afternoon. Baseball never seems to us to be worth the energy & risk that it requires, but in justice to those whom justice is due, we must say that this Banning crowd are very civil set of ball players, & we admire the generous spirit of these two gentlemen at the factory, who go with their boys & look after them. 'Verily they shall have their reward'. Beyond the accident of Mr. Loyd Duncan of Whitesburg being hit upon the head by a ball, thrown by Mr. B. Henry, a Banning pitcher, & knocked down & stunned for some minutes, but not killed, or seriously injured, & Mr. Mose Watkins, a Banning boy having his collar bone dislocated, & Mr. Henry Rooks of Whitesburg receiving a lick on his ankle which lamed, but did not lay him up, & a colored boy, a spectator, being struck on the arm by the ball, the game was very pleasant one with only a modicum of caviling, & disputation, everything sober & civil. The players from Banning were Paul Tolbert, Dot Upson, Grover Henry, AO Colquitt, Mr. Collins, B. Henry, Albert Motes, Bob Horton, John Watts, Tom Morris. ... The score in the hands of Mr. Albert Jones of Banning, showed 10 to 11 in favor of Whitsburg. We are always glad when we hear of our Whitesburg boys getting beat at baseball because we firmly believe that they are every one 'cut out' for higher, more important callings, & the sooner they each learn this, the better pleased we will be, but unfortunately for their future good they do not always loose out, 'more's the pity'."

August 7, 1914- Carroll County Times reports, "Banning the model little village nestling among the hills of old Carroll is making quite a record of late. She has been noted for a baseball Nine who take the high marks wherever they go & for 'gentlemen' with 'back bones', & now she has thrown her hat into the ring on another venture & is leaving Whitesburg just as far behind as she is able. On last Wed. there was a reception at the homes of Mr. Bob Thomas & Mr. Grover Hall. The guest of honor in each case was a brand new baby. Quite an addition to Banning's escutcheon."

August 13, 1914- Carroll County Times reports, " 'Disastrous Fire at Banning' Early Wed. am the Dry Goods Store of the Hutcheson Manufacturing Co., was completely destroyed by fire at this place. The fire was first discovered was bursting from the center of the building was of unknown origin. The store was one of the largest in the county & will probably be replaced by a brick building. It was insured."

September 10, 1914, Carroll County Times reports, " 'Women in Industry' There are 428,267 women & girls over 15 years of age engaged in textile factories. Of these, 190,000 women & girls work in cotton mills in the US. There are 252,432 engaged in making clothes, 80,000 in laundries, 90,619 in tobacco factories, & 88,628 in canneries. The census of 1910 gives 8,075,722 women & girls over 10 yrs. of age as employed in some gainful pursuit. Of this number, 637,086 are girls. "

July 15, 1915, Carroll County Times reports, "The Banning baseball enthusiasts played Whitesburg Sat., and the score was 6 to 2 in favor of Whitesburg"

July 29, 1915, Carroll County Times reports, " 'Banning Local News' We attended the singing at Antioch on Sunday last. It was a real treat to hear the old songs enjoyed in our youthful days & revived many pleasant memories"
"In a very exciting game Sat., the Banning Baseball team defeated the Mandeville Mills team of Carrollton 10 to 0. Henry pitched a great ball for Banning, only giving up two hits."

March 22, 1917- Carroll County Times reports, " 'Tallapoosa People Buy Banning Cotton Mill' C. E. Pierce purchased, will put the mill to full capacity, add a night shift, Mr. Greely will be in charge of the office work and general business. 'This is one of the oldest & best cotton mills in Georgia. The original mill was built before the war & has been improved & enlarged from time to time until it is now a 1st class plant of good capacity. It is located on the great water power shoals of Snake Creek & driven mainly by water power, supp. in dry seasons by steam. The purchase includes other power sites... operatives' houses, the store property, the water sites, & factory property."

1920 census records show approximately 131 men, women, and children employed at the Banning cotton mill. Out of the eighty-five men working, sixty-one were heads of households (fathers), while out of forty-six women, only twelve were working mothers. Six women were working widows, while five were young wives without children. The mean age of working males was fifty with a range from fourteen to sixty-eight. Working ages for women ranged from eight to sixty-six with a mean age of twenty-nine.

1921- Poncet Davis takes ownership of the cotton mill. He updates the facilities by adding a rubber plant and switches production from cotton to bicycle handlebars, grips, & pedals.

May 11, 1922- Carroll Free Press reports, "There has been several ball games in the burg recently. Banning & Union have visited the burg & played, but got defeated."

1925- The raceways along Snake Creek are rebuilt by local German craftsmen and the company closes its general store. Soon after, Henry Allen Holder of Banning, opens a grocery store on the outskirts of the village.

April 16, 1925- Carroll Free Press reports, "The Easter egg hunt given by Mrs. D. F. Driver Sat. afternoon, was enjoyed by all present" and "The candy pulling given by Mr. & Mrs. Fred Holloway Sat. night was enjoyed by all present."

April 22, 1926- Carroll Free Press reports, "Banning School: The following program will be rendered by the pupils of Banning School Sat. at 7: recitation, dialogue, song, solo, play, etc. Free Admission."

January 19, 1927- Carroll County Times reports, "Interesting news from Whitesburg" "Between Whitesburg & Banning is the first piece of surfaced road built in Carroll county"

1929- Banning closes, 173 are out of work.

1930- After the Great Depression, Banning’s work force dropped dramatically. The 1930 census shows sixty-seven men, women, and children employed at the mill. Thirty-seven were married men, two were widows, and one was a working mother. Men ranged from age fourteen to sixty-seven with a mean of thirty-nine. Out of the twenty-one female employees, the youngest was fourteen, while the eldest was a forty-three year old widow. The mean working age for females at Banning was nineteen.

January 1, 1930- Carroll Free Press reports, "Mr. Jesse Davis broke his arm while cranking his Ford ... William Driver, son of Mr. General Driver, died at this place Monday of Christmas & was buried at Paul Church. Rev. W. A. Thompson conducted services ... Several of the mill employees here have moved to Rockmart, Georgia, to work in the new Goodyear mill."

Feb. 26, 1931- Carroll Free Press reports, " 'Banning Cotton Mills Win Ruling on Appeal in Electrocution Suit' Banning Cotton Mill given right to seek recovery from Georgia Power Company on a $5,000 judgment in an accidental electrocution case, ruling last week of the Georgia Courts of Appeals." (C. B. Moore was electrocuted & killed at the factory.)

1932/3- mill closes and reopens

1934 Uprising, general strike sweeps through the South. Banning Mill is unaffected.

January 3, 1935- mills along Snake Creek employee approximately 250 people

1936- mill closes

August 27, 1936- Carroll County Times reports Banning has 157 registered voters, while Carrollton (the largest city in Carroll County and home to West Georgia College) has 3,054.

June, 29, 1939- Despite financial difficulties, Banning still has a ball club. The Carroll County Times reports, "Whitesburg Hits Hard to Win Game from Banning, 17-4"

November 20, 1939- Carroll County Times reports, " 'Banning Rubber Factory Makes Grips for 639 Miles of Bicycles in Year; Employees 40 People in 3 Shifts' Textile Rubber Co. Gaining Volume; Makes Variety of Goods" and "The Southeastern Fair in Atlanta was enjoyed by the people of Banning" and "Little Billie Driver of Banning is rapidly recovering from having his tonsils removed."

1940- C. L. Upchurch purchases mill and adds production of tire cord (to be woven into tires).

February 15, 1940- Carroll County Times reports 74 qualified voters listed at Banning.

May 1940- mill closes

June 27, 1940- Carroll County Times reports, " 'Banning Hears Plant May Re-Open Soon: Textile Rubber Unit Makes Study of Reveree's Req.' Jobs for 40 out of 225 lost (90% of the towns population of 550 depend on)."

July 18, 1940- Carroll County Times reports, "… with many of its 185 employees drawing unemployment compensation of $6 a week… It [the mill] is believed to have marketed more rubber bicycle & motorcycle handlebar grips than any other factory in the nation last year."

October 3, 1940- Carroll County Times reports, " 'Banning Mill Sold at Auction [for $32,000], Subject to Confirmation' Sale of the Banning Mill to E. G. Lyon of Providence, R. I. will be confirmed/denied at a meeting of the receiver for the firm & an attorney for Mr. Lyon, to be held in Newnan, Friday."

October 10, 1940- Carroll County Times reports, " 'Banning's Hopes Dashed With Mill To Be Dismantled' new owners plan to dismantle, C. L. Upchurch with a high bid of $40,250 won, '…the twisting element of the mill machinery will be sold & the spinning units kept at Banning at least for awhile' ... Meanwhile, the rubber textile mill that was allowed to re-open last summer… continues to operate with a staff of 40, but Banning had hoped all 200 of its idle workers would be able to return to work on their home heath."

November 28, 1940- Carroll County Times reports, "Carroll Textile Mills Face Shortage of Trained Workers"

December 9, 1940- Carroll County Times reports, " 'Banning Rubber Textile Plant Moves to Bowdon: Banning Cotton Mill Will Be Reopened by New York Firm' operated by Akron, Ohio ... 40 workers ... C. M. Keith of Akron is Vice President, David Stokes resident manager ... producing rubber cushions ... Immediate reopening of the Banning Mill Inc., announced last week by the New York textile interest who have purchased the plant of the cotton mill from C. L. Upchurch & Sons ... operate under the name of Winton Mills, Inc., will employ 25..."

May 15, 1941- Carroll Free Press reports, " 'Banning Mills Issue Checks for $6,648.15 Back Wages' former employees of the Banning Mills had good news this week when it was announced Tues. that checks totaling $6,648.15 representing wages due them at the time the mills closed down in May 1940 had been issued."

1943- an electric motor installed in the factory to replace old water turbine

1944- flood washes away part of the main building taking hundreds of bales of cotton into Snake Creek

late 40s- A. L. Fuller of Newnan, Georgia buys the mill and disassembles some of the mill's outbuildings, selling them for scrap. The company also sells off the mill homes, offering them first to the factory's operatives.

1948- Charlie Brown & Aimee Fickett Senn buy the mill and start the production of yarn for household mops. The factory employees 35 to 40 individuals. The mill closes shortly after their purchase.

1953- mill purchased by Douglas Matthews, G. F. Freedmen, & H. G. Houseworth

1958- C. E. Goodroe purchases the mill

1959- Banning associated with Carpet Manufactures of Dalton. Produces carpet yarn with nylon fibers. (remote yarn facility in Villa Rica, Georgia is called Banning Yarn #2)

1963-64- Banning affiliated with R. L. Kimsey Cotton of Floyd County

1967- state ordinances require better fireproofing measures, Goodroe opts not to make improvements and employees only a small workforce to fill outside contractual orders.

1970/1- Laying off 20 workers, Banning Mill closes for the last time. Shortly after Mike McGukin of Carrollton purchases the mill and converts it into a restaurant and theater.

August 1985- Dr. Cope Goodwin, professor at West Georgia College begins researching Banning's history.

circa 1990- Mike McGukin quits the restaurant business and converts the mill into apartments

1999- mill purchased by Patricia Brown and Nova Sims, current owners. The Center for Public History begins the Banning Mill Documentation Project, interviewing former mill hands and collecting research.

January 2004- Banning Mill GRA, Teresa Beyer, launches the Banning Mill Online Exhibit