This page is to support students' review
and understanding of David Hyerle's
book by this title. It provides an outline
and general comments.
Based on the ideas of Jerome Bruner concerning
what makes us human
1. Metacognition -- humans are the only beings
that are capable of thinking about their own thinking
processes. Visual tools are forms of metacognition.
2. Constructing Abstractions -- humans have the
capacity to synopisize massive amounts of information
and shape raw data into workable patterns.
3. Storing Information Outside the Body
archives of the mind are limited and the amount of
information is increasing, students will need
to learn strategies of harvesting, storing, cataloging,
retrieving, interpreting, and communicating vast
amounts of information among locations beyond
4. Systems Thinking -- Humans can
see parts in relation
to whole and thus see patterns, congruencies and
5. Problem Finding -- As far as
we know, humans are
the only form of life that actually enjoys the search for
problems to solve.
However, we also have a passion for doubting the status
quo, thereby sensing ambiguities and detecting anomalies.
Humans also are compelled to propose alternative ways
to solve problems and answer questions. Processing data,
looking for sequence, alternative routes or pathways is
one of the highest forms of learning and a strong base
for curriculum change.
6. Reciprocal Learning -- Humans
learn best in groups.
Intelligence is shaped through interaction. Visual tools
furnish ways for humans to share ideas.
7. Inventing -- Human beings
are by nature creative.
Creative people take risks, i.e., they generate novel,
clever, ingenious solutions to problems. They need
ways to illustrate those to others in concise fashion.
8. Deriving Meaning from Experience
Edison said he never made a mistake; he learned from
experience. A major outcome of any school wishing
to prepare autonomous human beings, is to
develop students' capacity for continuous self-analysis
9. Altering Response Patterns --
employing mapping tools causes us to restrain our
impulsivity, to suspend our judgments, to generate
and consider alternatives, and to attend empathetically
to others' perspectives. Fully functioning humans
engage in continuous learning.
Introduction: The Forest
and the Trees
||1. Can be used effectively by
to organize data.
2. Can be used by teachers to plan
3. Facilitates building of concepts and
4. Facilitate processing brainstorming.
5. Person developing them gives them
||1. Sometimes called "advanced
2. Graphic tool used by student to
retrieve, absorb new data.
3. Prepared ahead by teachers using
draw programs or tools like
||1. Designed to facilitate thinking
2. Can lead to reconceptualization
Why Visual Tools Now?
Why students need to learn to use visual tools--