Classroom Management

                  This is a summary of information given
                   in class via a Powerpoint presentation.

Teacher consistently takes action to suppress misbehaviors of exactly those students who instigated the problems

When 2 discipline problems arise concurrently, the teacher typically deals with the more serious one first.

Teacher decisively handles instances of off-task behaviors before the behaviors either get out of hand or are modeled by others

Response to misbehaviors

How does a teacher's handling of one student's behavior affect the behavior of other students?

     When a teacher's response to a student's misbehavior includes anger, threats, physical handling or indications of stress, other students become anxious and nervous but the chances that they will exhibit the misbehavior themselves in the future are not reduced.


On-task behavior dependent upon how smoothly teachers move form one learning activity to another how efficient they are how well momentum is maintained.

Reduce Boredom/Increase engagement in learning activities

Keeping students apprised about what they were accomplishing as lesson progressed

Interjecting challenges for student at different stages of the lesson

Using a variety of approaches in learning activities

50% of allocated time is lost because of off-task behaviors
99% of off-task behaviors take one of several forms

Students typically either talk out of turn, clown, daydream, or move about without permission

Antisocial, dangerous behaviors represent only minute proportion of the time that students spend off-task

Massive time wasting is epidemic in schools

Jonesí Suggestions

Body Language
Incentive systems for students
Efficient individual help for students
Body Language and proximity
Eye contact
Facial expressions
Physical proximity to students
The way your carry yourself
Calm control
Plan activities that allow you to roam among the students


Free time to watch video
Have free time to talk or play a game
Listen to music (with earphones)

Cooperation Through Communication

Teachers should verbalize to students descriptions of situation and behaviors but never value judgments about individuals themselves

Avoid Labels

Praise students work and desirable behaviors, not individuals

 Focus on the behavior to be changed

Teachers who fail to establish and enforce rules for conduct leave their students confused and lacking in guidance for being on-task

Democratic Classrooms

Students have a voice in the determination of rules
Students suffer the logical consequences of their own misbehaviors 
      rather than submit to arbitrary punishment administered by 
Are motivated to be on-task because of the intrinsic benefits derived 
      from being on-task

Mistaken Beliefs about Social Acceptance

Students misbehaviors are attributable to mistaken beliefs about how to obtain the recognition they see.

Attention getting
Power seeking
Revenge seeking
Displaying inadequacy


Prefer being punished, admonished,  or criticized to being ignored.
Give attention when they are on-task and cooperating.

Power Seeking

Refers to studentsí mistaken belief that, if a teacher doesn't let them do what they want, then the teacher does not approve of them. 

Power-seeking students attempt to provoke teachers into struggles of will.

Revenge Seeking

Power-seeking students are likely to develop resentment toward those to whom they have lost battles of will  They feel hurt by others who have displayed power over them.  Consequently, they want to hurt others to display their own power and thus achieve status.

Displaying Inadequacy

Uses inadequacy as an excuse when they are discouraged.

Assertive Discipline
1.     Use the assertive response
2.     Recognize fallacies in reasons for excusing off-task 
3.     Specify exactly what types of behaviors will be required 
        and what types will not be tolerated
4.     Develop a plan for encouraging on-task behaviors and 
        discouraging off-task behaviors
5.     Persist in following through with the plan
6.     Seek and expect support form parents, instructional 
        supervisors, and school administrators

Canter emphasized the needs of teachers. 

Learned that teachers have trouble stating exactly what they mean -- or want.


Based on work of B. F. Skinner

Behavior modification

Refers to the behaviorist approach by which studentsí environments are manipulated to increase the chances of desired behaviorsí being rewarded while undesirable behaviors go unrecorded.  We condition students to being on-task

Most often used in schools today to work with special education students.  May see it written into an IEP or IIP.

1.     Believes that students make rational choices -- at least 
        in their  perspective.

2.     Regardless, there is such a thing as inexcusable 

3.     Understanding why a student exhibits undesirable 
        behaviors is  no reason to tolerate them. 

4.     Students are rational beings and quite capable of 
        choosing to cooperate and be on-task. 

5.     Teacher should never compromise his/her standards


1.     Rules should be established cooperatively by teachers 
        and students
2.     Rules should be strictly and consistently followed

Group Meetings

1.     Concerning social conduct
2.     Open-ended meetings for discussing important subjects
3.     Discussing how well students are progressing 
4.     Held to solve problems

A word about rules

1.     ROUTINES -- Not everything is a "rule."  It is critical to establish routines for students.  In other words, you want to develop habits for behavior in your classroom.  You do these over and over until they come natural to students.

2.     PROCEDURES -- as Harry Wong so eloquently points out, students cannot be held responsible when they do not know what they are responsible for.  For everything that happens on a regular basis in your class, there should be a procedure.  A good example is passing out and taking up paper work.

3.     RULES -- True rules are serious things.  There are only a few rules.  Most people suggest 5 is a good number.  One simply says that students will abide by the policies and procedures of the school and obey the laws.  Another is usually a restatement of the "Golden Rule." Another one might deal with coming to class with materials and being prepared to learn.

4.     CONSEQUENCES -- Once rules are established, clear an simple consequences must be explained to students.  Consequences usually start with simple deprivations, e.g., demerit.  Increase gradually to calling parents, sending to office, etc.

       Whatever the consequences are there are two important things to remember as the teacher --

       1.    You cannot break the law.  Be certain that your consequences comply with the law regarding special education students, especially.  Obviously, you cannot do anything that might harm students physically or emotionally.  Ask for advice from other teachers or the principal.

       2.     Whatever you tell the students the consequences will be, be consistent in following through.  They will learn quickly if you are serious about your rules or not.

 University of West Georgia