Overview: The expletive in Pattern 10 (and rarely, Pattern 9) – note also pages 78-9 in G.B.D.

Rule: direct object + “as” + objective complement = expletive

The people in the neighborhood voted Greg May as president of the Home Owners Association.

      head noun        prep/adj.                    t.v.         d.o.               obj. compl.–n.                prep/adj.         

 

“President” meets the requirements for an object complement: 1) we can replace “as” with the words “to be,” and 2) we can do the equivalence test: Greg May = president.

 

Because “as” does not function here as a preposition nor as a subordinating or coordinating conjunction, its place on the diagram structure is denoted  by using the pedestal structure on the base line. 

 

                                                          as               

                                                          │

people  │  voted         │ Greg May \   д   president  

  \in                                                           \of

    \  neighborhood                                       \ Home Owners Association

               \The                                                             \the  

 

 

►Notice how the diagrams and patterns change, however, when we mix up the variables:

 

1.       The people in the neighborhood voted for Greg May as the president of the Home Owners Association.

 

Here, “voted” becomes an intransitive verb (Pattern 6) followed by a string of prepositions. The prepositional phrases “for Greg May as the president of the Home Owners Association” would be diagrammed below the base line under the verb, all as one prepositional unit or chain.

                                                                                          

                                                                                                                  [to be]

                                                                                        ^

2.       The people in the neighborhood perceived Greg May an excellent candidate for president of the

      head noun                                             t.v.                 d.o.                              obj. compl.–n.                prep./adj.

 Home Owners Association.

 

 

In this sentence, we have a regular Pattern 10 (s – t.v. – d.o. – o.c./n.), minus the expletive, and thus without the special structure.

 

                                                           

people  │  perceived         │ Greg May         \              candidate               

  \in                                                                   \an  \excellent   \for

    \  neighborhood                                                                        \ president

               \The                                                                                       \of

                                                                                                                 \Home Owners Association  

                                                                                                                           \the