In-text Citation for APA

Author named in sentence

In her book Generation Me, Jean M. Twenge (2006) explains…

Author named in parentheses

Information that pertains to the quoted material that requires a parenthetical at the end of the sentence (Smith, 2017).

Two to five authors

Policy Professors Bruce L. R. Smith and A. Lee Fritschler (2009) argue…

Information written by multiple authors that pertains to the quoted material that requires a parenthetical at the end of the sentence (Smith, Jones, Doe, & Smith, 2017).

Note: After the first time citing all of the material’s authors, simply list the first author’s last name followed by et al. if there are three or more authors (example, Smith et al., 2017). Continue to list the authors’ names if there are only two authors for the text cited.

If the text quoted has six or more authors, default to the et al. method for the initial and all subsequent citations.

Organization as author

According to the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press (2007), the role of…

Public service announcements were used to inform parents of these findings (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1991).

Note: Use the abbreviation of the organization in subsequent citations.

Unknown author

The transformation of women’s lives has been hailed as “the single most important change for the past 1,000 years” (“Reflections,” 1999, p. 77).

Indirect (secondary) source

If information is gleaned from a source within another source, quote from the source actually read.

John Doe stated… (as cited in Smith, 2017, p.1)

The reference page will contain the material from Smith and not Doe.

Note: It is a more efficient and reliable method to track down the original source of information quoted in research papers. Even published authors will sometimes miss quote or wrongly attribute information.