Fall 2008 - Volume 11 Issue 3


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The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration is a peer-reviewed electronic journal offered free each quarter over the World Wide Web. The journal welcomes manuscripts based on original work of practitioners and researchers with specific focus or implications for the management of distance education programs. Click here to access our readership stats.
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Events & Learning

Distance Learning Administration 2018
June 24-27, 2018
Jekyll Island Club Hotel in Jekyll Island, Georgia

Conference on Meaningful Living and Learning in a Digital World
February 5-7, 2018
Savannah, Georgia

Distance Education
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Fall 2017
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January 22, 2018
June 2018

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February 12, 2018
May 2018

Advanced Technologies for Distance Education Certificate Program
May 2018

Advanced Technologies for Distance Education Certificate Program
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Fall 2017
Program Begins
January 22, 2018
May 2018

Intro to Social Media Marketing Certificate Program
Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Online Program Begins
January 22, 2017
March 2018

Thanks to the
University of West Georgia
for providing this webspace

Editorial Board

Dr. Melanie Clay
University of West Georgia

Managing Editor
Ms. Kendall Dickey
University of West Georgia

Associate Editor
Ms. Julie Stone Ingle
University of West Georgia

Editorial Board
Dr. Mac Adkins
Troy University


Christopher L. A. Ahlstrom
Towson University

David Babb
University of North Georgia

Dr. R.-L. Etienne Barnett University of Atlanta (US) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France)

Mr. R. Thomas Berner
Pennsylvania State University

Dr. Kris Biesinger
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Dr. Beverly L. Bower
University of North Texas

Ms. Diane M. Burnette
University of Georgia

Erik Burns
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Dr. W. Dean Care
Brandon University

Dr. Jason G. Caudill
King University

Yong Chen
Old Dominion University

Mr. Matthew N. Clay
University of West Georgia

Dr. Sherry A. Clouser
University of Georgia

Bradly Corlett

Dr. Ken Corley
Appalachian State University

Dr. Micheal Crafton
University of West Georgia

Dr. Muhammet Demirbilek
Suleyman Demirel University, Turkey

Dr. Robert N. Diotalevi
Florida Gulf Coast University

Pamala Dixon
University of West Georgia

Ms. Beth Evans
College Library of the City University of New York

Dr. Catherine L. Finnegan Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Jan Flegle
American Public University System

Dr. Larry V. Flegle
American Military University

Tanacha Gaines
University of West Georgia

Dr. Cher C. Hendricks
University of West Georgia

Dr. Katy Herbold
Southern Utah University

Mrs. Laurie G. Hillstock
Virginia Tech

Dr. Cathy Hochanadel
Kaplan University

Dr. Genell Hooper Harris
Centenary College of Louisiana

Dr. Scott L. Howell
Brigham Young University

Dr. Jason B. Huett
University of West Georgia

Dr. Thomas J. Hynes
Clayton State University

Dr. Sallie J. Johnson
USAF Air University, Air Command and Staff College

Dr. Harold J. Kearsley
Norwich University

Dr. John J. Ketterer
Jacksonville State University

Dr. James W. King
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

James Kinneer
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Irene Kokkala
University of North Georgia

Olabisi Kuboni (retired)
The University of West Indies

Dr. Sally Kuhlenschmidt
Western Kentucky University

Ms. Elizabeth D. Larzelere M.S.
New York Chiropractic College

Melissa Layne
American Public University System

Dr. Andrew Leavitt
University of North Georgia


Dr. Lauryl A. Lefebvre

University of Phoenix

Ms. Nancy Lee
University of Nevada

Dr. Elke M. Leeds
Kennesaw State University


Dr. Amanda E. Major
University of Central Florida

Christopher Mathews-Smith M.A.
Emory University

Dr. Jennifer McLean
Pennsylvania College of Technology

COL Philip A. McNair (USA, ret.)
American Public University System

Dr. Marc D. Miller
Augusta State University

Dr. Nancy Griffin Mims, Ed.D.
University of West Georgia

Dr. Mary Jo Muratore
University of Missouri - Columbia

Anna Obedkova
University of Texas of Arlington

Dr. Abbot L. Packard
University of West Georgia

Dr. Angie Parker
Northcentral University

Dr. Shawn M. Quilter
Eastern Michigan University

Dr. Ravic P. Ringlaben
University of West Georgia

Dr. Michael Rogers
Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the
University System of Georgia


Dr. Beth Rene Roepnack
University of West Georgia Associate Director of Online Faculty Development
University of West Georgia

Dr. Peter J. Shapiro
Director of Creative Learning Services
Florida State College at Jacksonville

Dr. LeAnn McKinzie Thomason
Brownsville, Texas

Mitzi P. Trahan, Ph.D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Thomas J. Tobin
Author and Speaker

Dr. Joann Kroll Wheeler
Texas A & M University

Past OJDLA Editors
Dr. Stephen J. Anspacher
The New School

Dr. Michael Beaudoin
University of New England

Dr. Elizabeth Bennett
University of West Georgia

Janet Gubbins
University of West Georgia

Ms. Tammy Hamm-Ronsisvalle
Synergy Plus Inc.

Rayma Harchar, Ed. D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Nataliya V. Ivankova
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Kathleen A. Kraus
State University of New York at New Paltz

Dr. Dwight Laws
Brigham Young University

Dr. George E. Marsh II
The University of Alabama


Dr. Barbara K. McKenzie
University of West Georgia

Dr. Paul F. Merrill
Brigham Young University

Mr. Bob Reese
Reese Consulting Associates, Inc.

Dr. M. D. Roblyer
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga

Mr. Timothy W. Seid
Earlham School of Religion

Dr. Barbara L. Watkins
University of Kansas

Current Issue

Predicting Student Performance in Web-Based Distance Education Courses Based on Survey Instruments Measuring Personality Traits and Technical Skills

Michael Hall
Michael Hall

by Michael Hall

Two common web-based surveys, “Is Online Learning Right for Me?’ and “What Technical Skills Do I Need?”, were combined into a single survey instrument and given to 228 on-campus and 83 distance education students. The students were enrolled in four different classes (business, computer information services, criminal justice, and early childhood development) on three different regional campuses of a mid-western community college. Multiple regression equations were developed with the survey scores and the type of class to determine the extent to which the survey scores predicted final semester grade percentages. Although distance education students scored significantly higher on the survey instruments than on-campus students, the survey scores explained only 8% of the observed variance in their final grade percentage. The course in which they enrolled (business, computer information services, criminal justice, and early childhood development) explained most of the variance in final grade percentage. There was no significant difference in survey scores between students that withdrew from their classes and those that remained to receive a final semester grade. Recommendations for further research are suggested.

Factors Affecting Faculty Members’ Decision to Teach or Not to Teach Online in Higher Education

Zhen group picture
Abigail Garthwait - Yurui Zhen - Phillip Pratt

by Yurui Zhen
     Abigail Garthwait
     Phillip Pratt

This study identified the important factors influencing faculty members’ decision to use or not to use any form of online course management applications (OCMA) in higher education. A polynomial logistic analysis led to a statistical-artifact hypothesis: factors did exist that correlated faculty members’ technology adoption decisions. Motivational factors such as Self-efficacy or Philosophy had a strong impact on the probability of using OCMA relative to the reference category of the non-use of OCMA; Teaching experience or Peer-pressure or Class-innovation had no impact; Time was shown not to be a factor.  Additionally, this study suggested specific ways in which administrators might play an important role in supporting faculty members’ decisions toward online education. This study was guided by four research questions. It examined six hypothesized independent factors. A random sample of four hundred teaching faculty members in the University of Maine was invited to participate via print surveys.


Community Colleges Friendlier to Online PhD’s
Leon Guendoo
Leon Guendoo

by Leon M. Guendoo

Those with online PhD’s stand a better chance of being hired by a community college than by other colleges or universities when seeking a faculty position. In a 2007 study, administrators of some of the largest community colleges in the United States indicated that they were receptive to hiring applicants with online doctorates for teaching positions once the candidate possessed the “total package elements,” namely teaching experience, publications, presentations, and demonstrated professional service. The investigation of the community college perspective on possible institutional bias surrounding the online doctorate was prompted by an earlier study which concluded that those applying for faculty positions in higher education institutions would have only a slim chance of obtaining employment if they had earned their doctorate solely online. Despite concerns about accreditation, face-to-face interaction, academic experience, mentoring, faculty preparation, and diploma mills, the group community college administrators in this Delphi study overwhelmingly confirmed that they did not view the online doctoral credential as a disadvantage to the candidate in a hiring situation.


Integrating Content, Pedagogy, and Reflective Practice: Innovative new Distance Learning Courses and Programs for Mathematics Teachers
Hovermill and Crites
Jeffrey Hovermill & Terry Crites

by Jeffrey Hovermill
     Terry Crites

This article details the development of new courses and programs offered through a university distance learning initiative.  These innovative courses build on national research and policy recommendations regarding the mathematical education of teachers.  Course material, course evaluation, and student interview data are presented to shed light on two important themes: (a) How teacher content and pedagogical knowledge can be developed within courses and across a degree program and (b) how these teacher education goals can be met via distance learning.  Students (classroom teachers) reported that the integration of content and pedagogy was a valuable feature of the program.  Overall, students thought the program helped them be more effective teachers and would recommend the program to others.  They especially appreciated the flexibility and convenience the distance programs provide.


The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration Reaches the 10-Year Mark: A Look Back at Its Collaboration Network Using Social Network Theory
Scott Howell, Julie Hite, and Steven Hite
Scott Howell - Julie Hite- Steven Hite

by Julie Hite
     Steven Hite
     Scott Howell
     Lenae Crandall

Happy 10th birthday to the Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration! Who would have ever imagined that this online journal situated on the Web site of a smaller university in Carrollton, Georgia, U.S.A., (population about 20,000 and listed in 2002 as one of the 50 best small southern towns in the United States), and without the financial backing of a large national association, would emerge 10 years later as one of the field's premier journals? Not even the founding editor, Dr. Melanie Clay, quite envisioned the number of contributors and readers who would seek out her journal from all over the world to entrust their academic knowledge and to read the latest "practical distance education management ideas as well as more theoretical works" (Clay, 2008). Dr. Clay briefly recounted how the journal originated and later surpassed her own expectations. Most of what I learned about leading a distance program came as a result of visiting and talking to others at other colleges and universities, or simply by trial-and-error. So, one day, in the summer of 1998, I was discussing this with Janet Gubbins, who is now the assistant director of distance learning here, and within about 30 minutes' time we decided to create an online journal relating to the issues that we faced every day. . . . We were simply looking to promote a formal exchange of ideas and research in this area, and had no idea whatsoever that the journal would become so widely read and cited. So I would say that our expectations were very much exceeded. (M. Clay, personal communication, August 4, 2008).


From the Editor

Melanie ClayI can't believe it has been 10 years since our first issue of the OJDLA went online. I think it would have almost slipped my mind except that Dr. Scott Howell provided us with a wonderful tribute in his research, published in this issue. As I look back over the years, the areas of interest have certainly evolved, as our distance programs have matured beyond the start-up, how-do-we-do-x era. While still overwhelmed with the volume and complexity of managing a growing online program, I am more encouraged than ever by greater student and faculty buy-in, and tremendous improvement in course quality. As distance learning administrators, your expertise and vision is needed more now than ever before, as rising gas prices, enrollments beyond physical seat capacity, and other factors have moved online learning to mainstream, front and center. I wish to sincerely thank our readers, contributors, and review board for your incredible support and encouragement over these 10 years.

Peace to all,

Melanie N. Clay, Ph.D.
September 15, 2008

To be notified of future publications contact the UWG Distance & Distributed Education Center

Last modified: September 15th, 2008