Spring 2010 - Volume 13 Issue 1


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The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration is a peer-reviewed electronic journal offered free each quarter over the World Wide Web. The journal welcomes manuscripts based on original work of practitioners and researchers with specific focus or implications for the management of distance education programs. Click here to access our readership stats.
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Events & Learning

Distance Learning Administration 2018
June 24-27, 2018
Jekyll Island Club Hotel in Jekyll Island, Georgia

Conference on Meaningful Living and Learning in a Digital World
February 5-7, 2018
Savannah, Georgia

Distance Education
Certificate Program

Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
January 22, 2018
June 2018

Distance Education
Certified Trainer Program

Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
February 12, 2018
May 2018

Advanced Technologies for Distance Education Certificate Program
May 2018

Advanced Technologies for Distance Education Certificate Program
Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
January 22, 2018
May 2018

Intro to Social Media Marketing Certificate Program
Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Online Program Begins
January 22, 2017
March 2018

Thanks to the
University of West Georgia
for providing this webspace

Editorial Board

Dr. Melanie Clay
University of West Georgia

Managing Editor
Ms. Kendall Dickey
University of West Georgia

Associate Editor
Ms. Julie Stone Ingle
University of West Georgia

Editorial Board
Dr. Mac Adkins
Troy University


Christopher L. A. Ahlstrom
Towson University

David Babb
University of North Georgia

Dr. R.-L. Etienne Barnett University of Atlanta (US) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France)

Mr. R. Thomas Berner
Pennsylvania State University

Dr. Kris Biesinger
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Dr. Beverly L. Bower
University of North Texas

Ms. Diane M. Burnette
University of Georgia

Erik Burns
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Dr. W. Dean Care
Brandon University

Dr. Jason G. Caudill
King University

Yong Chen
Old Dominion University

Mr. Matthew N. Clay
University of West Georgia

Dr. Sherry A. Clouser
University of Georgia

Bradly Corlett

Dr. Ken Corley
Appalachian State University

Dr. Micheal Crafton
University of West Georgia

Dr. Muhammet Demirbilek
Suleyman Demirel University, Turkey

Dr. Robert N. Diotalevi
Florida Gulf Coast University

Pamala Dixon
University of West Georgia

Ms. Beth Evans
College Library of the City University of New York

Dr. Catherine L. Finnegan Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Jan Flegle
American Public University System

Dr. Larry V. Flegle
American Military University

Tanacha Gaines
University of West Georgia

Dr. Cher C. Hendricks
University of West Georgia

Dr. Katy Herbold
Southern Utah University

Mrs. Laurie G. Hillstock
Virginia Tech

Dr. Cathy Hochanadel
Kaplan University

Dr. Genell Hooper Harris
Centenary College of Louisiana

Dr. Scott L. Howell
Brigham Young University

Dr. Jason B. Huett
University of West Georgia

Dr. Thomas J. Hynes
Clayton State University

Dr. Sallie J. Johnson
USAF Air University, Air Command and Staff College

Dr. Harold J. Kearsley
Norwich University

Dr. John J. Ketterer
Jacksonville State University

Dr. James W. King
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

James Kinneer
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Irene Kokkala
University of North Georgia

Olabisi Kuboni (retired)
The University of West Indies

Dr. Sally Kuhlenschmidt
Western Kentucky University

Ms. Elizabeth D. Larzelere M.S.
New York Chiropractic College

Melissa Layne
American Public University System

Dr. Andrew Leavitt
University of North Georgia


Dr. Lauryl A. Lefebvre

University of Phoenix

Ms. Nancy Lee
University of Nevada

Dr. Elke M. Leeds
Kennesaw State University


Dr. Amanda E. Major
University of Central Florida

Christopher Mathews-Smith M.A.
Emory University

Dr. Jennifer McLean
Pennsylvania College of Technology

COL Philip A. McNair (USA, ret.)
American Public University System

Dr. Marc D. Miller
Augusta State University

Dr. Nancy Griffin Mims, Ed.D.
University of West Georgia

Dr. Mary Jo Muratore
University of Missouri - Columbia

Anna Obedkova
University of Texas of Arlington

Dr. Abbot L. Packard
University of West Georgia

Dr. Angie Parker
Northcentral University

Dr. Shawn M. Quilter
Eastern Michigan University

Dr. Ravic P. Ringlaben
University of West Georgia

Dr. Michael Rogers
Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the
University System of Georgia


Dr. Beth Rene Roepnack
University of West Georgia Associate Director of Online Faculty Development
University of West Georgia

Dr. Peter J. Shapiro
Director of Creative Learning Services
Florida State College at Jacksonville

Dr. LeAnn McKinzie Thomason
Brownsville, Texas

Mitzi P. Trahan, Ph.D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Thomas J. Tobin
Author and Speaker

Dr. Joann Kroll Wheeler
Texas A & M University

Past OJDLA Editors
Dr. Stephen J. Anspacher
The New School

Dr. Michael Beaudoin
University of New England

Dr. Elizabeth Bennett
University of West Georgia

Janet Gubbins
University of West Georgia

Ms. Tammy Hamm-Ronsisvalle
Synergy Plus Inc.

Rayma Harchar, Ed. D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Nataliya V. Ivankova
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Kathleen A. Kraus
State University of New York at New Paltz

Dr. Dwight Laws
Brigham Young University

Dr. George E. Marsh II
The University of Alabama


Dr. Barbara K. McKenzie
University of West Georgia

Dr. Paul F. Merrill
Brigham Young University

Mr. Bob Reese
Reese Consulting Associates, Inc.

Dr. M. D. Roblyer
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga

Mr. Timothy W. Seid
Earlham School of Religion

Dr. Barbara L. Watkins
University of Kansas

Current Issue

Effective Leadership of Online Adjunct Faculty

Radwan Ali
Robert Tipple

by Robert Tipple, D.M.

Post secondary education leaders and administrators are currently facing two separate but inter-related trends: the growth in online education, and the significant increase in adjunct (part-time) faculty. In order to maximize the educational quality and institutional effectiveness, education leaders must develop an approach that levers the characteristics of online adjunct faculty.  The paper describes the characteristics of online adjunct faculty and their motivation for teaching, explores leadership style approaches to lever this highly motivated workforce, and offers a framework to education leaders that draws from the transformational and situational leadership styles. The framework is made up of two prongs:  the effective leadership of the online adjunct faculty workforce throughout their teaching careers, and the management of online organizational systems. Educational leaders who can lead their workforce in embracing educational technologies to provide a superior learning environment for students will lead the way in education. These leaders need to be visionary, motivational and highly supportive of their workforce especially those who are in direct contact with students, the online adjunct faculty.

View Article

Examining the Relationship Between Institutional Mission and Faculty Reward for Teaching Via Distance

Batts, Pagliari and McFadden
Cheryl Simpson

by Cheryl M. Simpson, Ph.D.

Distance education is fast becoming an elemental part of the fabric of academic life on many campuses, and this has implications for existing reward structures for faculty at these institutions. In addition, distance education is becoming an essential feature of the outreach mission of a number of departments at college and university campuses. Without adequate and valued rewards for this increasingly important dimension of faculty work, institutions may have little chance of recruiting and retaining highly capable faculty who are willing to teach at a distance.

This study focused on a U.S. land grant, public institution of higher education that has been offering distance education courses and programs for over a decade, and utilizes faculty members at all levels for distance education instruction. The intention was to explore how the institution translates its values regarding distance education into reward policy and practice for faculty who teach via distance.
The aim of the study was to add to the research on distance education policy and development in higher education. Specifically, it was designed to understand distance education policy from the perspective of internal stakeholders (administrators, faculty, and support staff) in order to inform policy and practice. Further, a thorough examination of the literature produced no findings of a study that specifically examined the relationship between institutional mission and core strategies with reward structures for faculty distance efforts, including comparisons of reward practices at the academic subunit level.

What emerged from the analysis of interview transcripts, and relevant policy documents and mission statements, led to the grounded theory components that higher education administrators can use to convey an institution’s commitment to distance education through mission, core strategies, and faculty reward policies and practices. In addition, the deeper theoretical understanding of policy and practice that was derived from this study can form a basis for further investigations in this area.

View Article

Cheating in the Digital Age: Do Students Cheat More in Online Courses?
Connie Reimers-Hild    George Watson James W. King
James Sottile

by George Watson
    James Sottile

With the assistance of the Internet and related technologies, students today have many more ways to be academically dishonest than students a generation ago.  With more and more Internet based course offerings, the concern is whether cheating will increase as students work and take tests away from the eyes of instructors.  While the research on academic dishonesty in general is quite extensive, there is very limited research on student cheating in online courses.  This study of 635 undergraduate and graduate students at a medium sized university focused on student cheating behaviors in both types of classes (on-line and face to face), by examining cheating behavior and perceptions of whether on-line or traditional face-to-face classes experienced greater cheating behaviors.

View Article

Quality and Growth Implications of Incremental Costing Models for Distance Education Units
C. B. Crawford

by C. B. Crawford, Ph.D.
    Lawrence V. Gould, Ph.D.
    Dennis King
    Carl Parker

The purpose of this article is to explore quality and growth implications emergent from various incremental costing models applied to distance education units.  Prior research relative to costing models and three competing costing models useful in the current distance education environment are discussed.  Specifically, the simple costing model, unit costing model, and marginal costing model are critically analyzed relative to their quality and growth implications.  Finally, the paper will provide rationale suggesting that the marginal costing model represents the most accurate estimation for profitability of distance learning units.

View Article

Perpetual Enrollment Online Courses: Advantages, Administration, and Caveats
Radwan AliMichael J. “Mick” Fekula

by Michael J. “Mick” Fekula, Ph.D.   

Although the advent of online learning has revolutionized the delivery of education, from the average student’s perspective there have been few radical innovations in the general administration of pure online courses since their inception. With some exceptions the scheduling of online courses generally aligns with the university calendar, while professors adopt a delivery timetable parallel to the classroom. Although the technology continually improves, the experience of the students regarding the calendar remains the same. An alternative is to allow students to enroll in and complete a course at almost any point in time. These courses would operate continuously without a restricted start or end date. This paper poses the advantages and design considerations for perpetual enrollment online courses, as well as caveats.  This proposal will be too radical for some institutions, but first-movers will have an advantage in attracting students from an untapped market.

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Distance Education and the Digital Divide: An Academic Perspective

Kathleen Matheos
Judy Block

by Judy Block    

This paper will address how the digital divide affects distance education. Lack of access for some students does raise concerns. Access to technology is often defined by what students don't have: what is called a digital divide. Access also is defined by the speed of Internet connections. Access in the future will be even greater as more computers emerge. The divide is huge. “Even as more Americans  purchase computers and flock online , most of the disparities that emerged during the latter half of the 1990’s remain” (Mossberger, Tolbert, & Stansbury, 2003, p. 35). Whose responsibility is it to bridge the worldwide digital divide? Policymakers and politicians who are in a position to effect change, because it is not just an education issue. The society is becoming an information-laden one. The more information that can be collected the better. Industries are relying on information in order to stay competitive. “However, there remains a digital divide based on race/Hispanic origin, income, location (central city and rural areas), and other demographic characteristics. The lower socioeconomic and minority groups continue to fall further behind the more affluent population” (Sarkodie-Mensah, 2000, p. 23). It is important to remember that access is still a barrier for many distance learners. This is effectively shutting them out of the opportunity to connect with the rest of the world, engage and participate as a lifelong student. This is changing with the rapid introduction of broadband.   In an article in the Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Cedja stated, “The disparity in broadband connection between rural and urban and suburban is important to address, however as the use of broadband technologies in distance education continues to increase” (Cedja, 2007, p. 299). Broadband is important to the distance education population because most distance learning courses will recommend that you have a broadband connection. By definition, a broadband connection can accommodate the rapid transfer of large amounts or packets of information. To raise rate of the broadband offers faster services are delivered to end users.

View Article

From the Editor

Melanie ClayI think we're finally getting some solid answers to some long-asked questions about online learning. Ten years ago, when we were still muddling along in a hurry (if that's possible) to set up systems and policies, all we really had were questions. How does online learning fit with the institutional mission? How are the needs of online faculty different from those of face-to-face faculty? How do we know that the online student is doing his or her own work?
While we now know the answers to these questions, we often need some good, handy data when asked by those who are less familiar with online learning (surely you know those people, too). This issue has a wealth of research and information for these questions building on what we've learned over the last decade. For instance George Watson and James Sottile, both of Marshall University, describe their study which found that face-to-face students actually reported a higher level of academic dishonesty! I was very excited about both the findings and the methodology used in this study, and would encourage replication. On another note, we're getting ready for our upcoming 11th Annual Distance Learning Administration Conference at Jekyll Island Club Hotel on June 6-9. Registration is open, and I hope to see you there. You won't regret it, I promise.

Happy Spring!

Melanie N. Clay, Ph.D.
March 12, 2010

To be notified of future publications contact the UWG Distance & Distributed Education Center

Last modified: March 12, 2010