Summer 2016 - Volume 19 Issue 2


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The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration is a peer-reviewed electronic journal offered free each quarter over the World Wide Web. The journal welcomes manuscripts based on original work of practitioners and researchers with specific focus or implications for the management of distance education programs. Click here to access our readership stats.
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Events & Learning

Distance Learning Administration 2018
June 24-27, 2018
Jekyll Island Club Hotel in Jekyll Island, Georgia

Conference on Meaningful Living and Learning in a Digital World
February 5-7, 2018
Savannah, Georgia

Distance Education
Certificate Program

Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
January 22, 2018
June 2018

Distance Education
Certified Trainer Program

Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
February 12, 2018
May 2018

Advanced Technologies for Distance Education Certificate Program
May 2018

Advanced Technologies for Distance Education Certificate Program
Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
January 22, 2018
May 2018

Intro to Social Media Marketing Certificate Program
Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Online Program Begins
January 22, 2017
March 2018

Thanks to the
University of West Georgia
for providing this webspace

Editorial Board

Dr. Melanie Clay
University of West Georgia

Managing Editor
Ms. Kendall Dickey
University of West Georgia

Associate Editor
Ms. Julie Stone Ingle
University of West Georgia

Editorial Board
Dr. Mac Adkins
Troy University


Christopher L. A. Ahlstrom
Towson University

David Babb
University of North Georgia

Dr. R.-L. Etienne Barnett University of Atlanta (US) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France)

Mr. R. Thomas Berner
Pennsylvania State University

Dr. Kris Biesinger
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Dr. Beverly L. Bower
University of North Texas

Ms. Diane M. Burnette
University of Georgia

Erik Burns
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Dr. W. Dean Care
Brandon University

Dr. Jason G. Caudill
King University

Yong Chen
Old Dominion University

Mr. Matthew N. Clay
University of West Georgia

Dr. Sherry A. Clouser
University of Georgia

Bradly Corlett

Dr. Ken Corley
Appalachian State University

Dr. Micheal Crafton
University of West Georgia

Dr. Muhammet Demirbilek
Suleyman Demirel University, Turkey

Dr. Robert N. Diotalevi
Florida Gulf Coast University

Pamala Dixon
University of West Georgia

Ms. Beth Evans
College Library of the City University of New York

Dr. Catherine L. Finnegan Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Jan Flegle
American Public University System

Dr. Larry V. Flegle
American Military University

Tanacha Gaines
University of West Georgia

Dr. Cher C. Hendricks
University of West Georgia

Dr. Katy Herbold
Southern Utah University

Mrs. Laurie G. Hillstock
Virginia Tech

Dr. Cathy Hochanadel
Kaplan University

Dr. Genell Hooper Harris
Centenary College of Louisiana

Dr. Scott L. Howell
Brigham Young University

Dr. Jason B. Huett
University of West Georgia

Dr. Thomas J. Hynes
Clayton State University

Dr. Sallie J. Johnson
USAF Air University, Air Command and Staff College

Dr. Harold J. Kearsley
Norwich University

Dr. John J. Ketterer
Jacksonville State University

Dr. James W. King
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

James Kinneer
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Irene Kokkala
University of North Georgia

Olabisi Kuboni (retired)
The University of West Indies

Dr. Sally Kuhlenschmidt
Western Kentucky University

Ms. Elizabeth D. Larzelere M.S.
New York Chiropractic College

Melissa Layne
American Public University System

Dr. Andrew Leavitt
University of North Georgia


Dr. Lauryl A. Lefebvre

University of Phoenix

Ms. Nancy Lee
University of Nevada

Dr. Elke M. Leeds
Kennesaw State University


Dr. Amanda E. Major
University of Central Florida

Christopher Mathews-Smith M.A.
Emory University

Dr. Jennifer McLean
Pennsylvania College of Technology

COL Philip A. McNair (USA, ret.)
American Public University System

Dr. Marc D. Miller
Augusta State University

Dr. Nancy Griffin Mims, Ed.D.
University of West Georgia

Dr. Mary Jo Muratore
University of Missouri - Columbia

Anna Obedkova
University of Texas of Arlington

Dr. Abbot L. Packard
University of West Georgia

Dr. Angie Parker
Northcentral University

Dr. Shawn M. Quilter
Eastern Michigan University

Dr. Ravic P. Ringlaben
University of West Georgia

Dr. Michael Rogers
Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the
University System of Georgia


Dr. Beth Rene Roepnack
University of West Georgia Associate Director of Online Faculty Development
University of West Georgia

Dr. Peter J. Shapiro
Director of Creative Learning Services
Florida State College at Jacksonville

Dr. LeAnn McKinzie Thomason
Brownsville, Texas

Mitzi P. Trahan, Ph.D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Thomas J. Tobin
Author and Speaker

Dr. Joann Kroll Wheeler
Texas A & M University

Past OJDLA Editors
Dr. Stephen J. Anspacher
The New School

Dr. Michael Beaudoin
University of New England

Dr. Elizabeth Bennett
University of West Georgia

Janet Gubbins
University of West Georgia

Ms. Tammy Hamm-Ronsisvalle
Synergy Plus Inc.

Rayma Harchar, Ed. D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Nataliya V. Ivankova
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Kathleen A. Kraus
State University of New York at New Paltz

Dr. Dwight Laws
Brigham Young University

Dr. George E. Marsh II
The University of Alabama


Dr. Barbara K. McKenzie
University of West Georgia

Dr. Paul F. Merrill
Brigham Young University

Mr. Bob Reese
Reese Consulting Associates, Inc.

Dr. M. D. Roblyer
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga

Mr. Timothy W. Seid
Earlham School of Religion

Dr. Barbara L. Watkins
University of Kansas

Current Issue

A Comparative Typology of Student and Institutional Expectations of Online Faculty

Melanie Shaw

Scott W. M. Burrus

by Melanie Shaw
Meena C. Clowes
Scott W. M. Burrus

Online faculty must uphold institutional expectations for their performance. Typically, online institutions have specific guidelines for faculty-to-student interactions; yet, student expectations of faculty may not necessarily align with institutional requirements. This study included a typological analysis of institutional requirements for online faculty in terms of student engagement. Then, student comments regarding faculty performance expectations were compared. Based on the findings, there are substantive differences which should be considered by institutions to ensure online student satisfaction with faculty is maximized. Recommendations for further study include replicating this with a purposeful sample of online students and doing a quantitative study of the relationship between faculty outcomes after implementing student performance expectations.

A Concierge Model for Supporting Faculty in Online Course Design

David S. McCurry
Bonnie B. Mullinix

by David S. McCurry
Bonnie B. Mullinix

Individualized approaches to online course design benefit faculty in numerous ways. Using a “concierge” model approach, this paper describes the working principles and steps used in course development. The general approach directly addresses many inherent problems with instructional design processes, which often highlight discrepancies in preparation and background between instructional designers and faculty as “subject matter” specialists. The concierge model outlined re-centers the course development process around the unique qualities of individual faculty, their academic and professional knowledge of the course “content”, and the body of skills and knowledge introduced by a partner instructional designer. All members of this partnership stand to gain in positive ways, as faculty can share their passion and depth of knowledge “translating” traditional course material to online teaching formats with the supportive skills and insights of the partner course designer. To guide this interaction, the paper provides “10 Concierge Keys of Supporting Individualized Online Course Development”. Together these offer a manifesto to guide academic instructional design support staff and units responsible for course development.

Distance Learning: A Game Changer

Rodger Bates
Bryan LaBrecque

by Rodger Bates
Bryan LaBrecque

Previous research identified a variety of special populations which may be serviced through online learning activities. These have included the military, Native Americans, prisoners, remote occupations, and others. This paper focuses the growing role of distance learning opportunities for student and professional athletes. Special attention is directed at the rules and regulations at the high school and college levels as well as the various types of programs and resources that have been developed for this population. Also, the development of online degree completion and graduate degrees for professional athletes are explored.

Full-Time and Adjunct Faculty Priorities for Online Instructional Behavior

Chad Maxson

by Chad Maxson

This study explored priorities for online instructional behavior in post-traditional programs at Private Christian University (PCU). No prior study had been identified that compared the online instructional priorities among full-time faculty (n = 73) and online adjunct faculty (n = 69). This study would benefit those who oversee online instructional standards or who operate online adjunct faculty development programs. Quantitative research was conducted using a survey instrument to answer the three research questions. A t-test for independent means was used to analyze how full-time and adjunct faculty members prioritized 29 online instructional behaviors. The results indicated statistically significant differences on two items. An implication of the study is that, based on the lead indicator of instructional priorities, adjunct faculty members may provide as high or higher quality online instruction than do full-time faculty members.

Age Difference in Research Course Satisfaction in a Blended Ed.D. Program: A Moderated Mediation Model of the Effects of Internet Self-Efficacy and Statistics Anxiety

by Lu Liu
MD Haque

This study identified the moderated mediation relationship among age, Internet self-efficacy, and statistics anxiety on student satisfaction after controlling for demographics and technology experiences in research methods courses in a blended professional doctoral program. One hundred and thirty-one students in a three-year Ed.D. Program participated in the study. The results show that after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and technology experiences, age was negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy and Internet self-efficacy mediated the relationship between age and course satisfaction as well. Although the moderation effect of statistics anxiety between self-efficacy and student satisfaction was not supported, there was still partial evidence that the group with statistics anxiety behaved differently from the group without statistics anxiety in terms of the conditional indirect effect of age on course satisfaction. The authors call for future studies to focus on online or blended research courses in professional doctoral programs and test the proposed conceptual model.

Facilitating Professional Learning Communities Among Higher Education Faculty: The Walden Junto Model

Laurie A. Bedford
Katie A. Rossow

by Laurie A. Bedford
Katie A. Rossow

Virtual Professional Learning Communities (PLC) have become an innovative way to meet the professional development needs of faculty in the online learning environment. Walden University’s model for PLCs, the Walden Junto, uses a combination of synchronous and asynchronous online strategies and is based on a philosophy that embraces the faculty members’ needs for professional growth as well as building community among the faculty population. However, previous research into virtual PLCs has examined either exclusively synchronous or asynchronous settings and has primarily focused on the processes of the community rather than outcomes.  The intent of this research was to determine the impact of participation in the Walden Junto on faculty perception of collegial relationships and on classroom performance.  An exploratory survey design was employed to answer these research questions. The survey was administered to volunteers from the population of faculty who participated in a Walden Junto within a one-year time frame. Descriptive statistics and chi square analysis were used to examine the data.  Findings suggest that a PLC model such as the Walden Junto can be a means to reinforce participants’ needs for belonging through collaboration and sharing of resources. In addition, it may be an appropriate professional development activity to create knowledge transfer to practice in some faculty roles. 

From the Editor

Melanie ClayGreetings friends,

Next week is my favorite week of the year, our annual Distance Learning Administration Conference in Jekyll Island, Georgia. This year is very special to me as we welcome back our first keynote speaker from 2000 - Dr. Barbara Truman of the University of Central Florida.

Looking back on that first year (seventeen years ago) makes me realize how much has changed. In that summer, my middle child was a newborn. Now, he is a rising senior taking an online class as a dual-enrolled student at the University of West Georgia. By the time he graduates and enters college, he will nearly be a sophomore.

Truly, the opportunities that all of our collective work in online learning has produced over the past two decades are something of which we can all be truly amazed and proud. At the same time, I also see too many new barriers being put into place, whether driven by regulatory or political interests, or misguided perceptions of the threat of online learning.

As quality continues to improve and online learning becomes a larger part of the fabric of higher education, I believe we as administrators must be proactive in our big-picture thinking, rather than waiting until we are forced to react. I look forward to these and more conversations on the beautiful Georgia coast next week.

Happy Summer!

- Melanie

Melanie N. Clay, Ph.D.

June 15, 2017

Thank you to

for being the Proceedings sponsor at DLA 2017!

To be notified of future publications contact the UWG Distance & Distributed Education Center

Last modified: June 15, 2017