Winter 2014 - Volume 17 Issue 4


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The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration is a peer-reviewed electronic journal offered free each quarter over the World Wide Web. The journal welcomes manuscripts based on original work of practitioners and researchers with specific focus or implications for the management of distance education programs. Click here to access our readership stats.
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Events & Learning

Distance Learning Administration 2018
June 24-27, 2018
Jekyll Island Club Hotel in Jekyll Island, Georgia

Conference on Meaningful Living and Learning in a Digital World
February 5-7, 2018
Savannah, Georgia

Distance Education
Certificate Program

Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
January 22, 2018
June 2018

Distance Education
Certified Trainer Program

Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
February 12, 2018
May 2018

Advanced Technologies for Distance Education Certificate Program
May 2018

Advanced Technologies for Distance Education Certificate Program
Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Program Begins
January 22, 2018
May 2018

Intro to Social Media Marketing Certificate Program
Registration Begins
Fall 2017
Online Program Begins
January 22, 2017
March 2018

Thanks to the
University of West Georgia
for providing this webspace

Editorial Board

Dr. Melanie Clay
University of West Georgia

Managing Editor
Ms. Kendall Dickey
University of West Georgia

Associate Editor
Ms. Julie Stone Ingle
University of West Georgia

Editorial Board
Dr. Mac Adkins
Troy University


Christopher L. A. Ahlstrom
Towson University

David Babb
University of North Georgia

Dr. R.-L. Etienne Barnett University of Atlanta (US) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France)

Mr. R. Thomas Berner
Pennsylvania State University

Dr. Kris Biesinger
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Dr. Beverly L. Bower
University of North Texas

Ms. Diane M. Burnette
University of Georgia

Erik Burns
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Dr. W. Dean Care
Brandon University

Dr. Jason G. Caudill
King University

Yong Chen
Old Dominion University

Mr. Matthew N. Clay
University of West Georgia

Dr. Sherry A. Clouser
University of Georgia

Bradly Corlett

Dr. Ken Corley
Appalachian State University

Dr. Micheal Crafton
University of West Georgia

Dr. Muhammet Demirbilek
Suleyman Demirel University, Turkey

Dr. Robert N. Diotalevi
Florida Gulf Coast University

Pamala Dixon
University of West Georgia

Ms. Beth Evans
College Library of the City University of New York

Dr. Catherine L. Finnegan Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Jan Flegle
American Public University System

Dr. Larry V. Flegle
American Military University

Tanacha Gaines
University of West Georgia

Dr. Cher C. Hendricks
University of West Georgia

Dr. Katy Herbold
Southern Utah University

Mrs. Laurie G. Hillstock
Virginia Tech

Dr. Cathy Hochanadel
Kaplan University

Dr. Genell Hooper Harris
Centenary College of Louisiana

Dr. Scott L. Howell
Brigham Young University

Dr. Jason B. Huett
University of West Georgia

Dr. Thomas J. Hynes
Clayton State University

Dr. Sallie J. Johnson
USAF Air University, Air Command and Staff College

Dr. Harold J. Kearsley
Norwich University

Dr. John J. Ketterer
Jacksonville State University

Dr. James W. King
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

James Kinneer
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Irene Kokkala
University of North Georgia

Olabisi Kuboni (retired)
The University of West Indies

Dr. Sally Kuhlenschmidt
Western Kentucky University

Ms. Elizabeth D. Larzelere M.S.
New York Chiropractic College

Melissa Layne
American Public University System

Dr. Andrew Leavitt
University of North Georgia


Dr. Lauryl A. Lefebvre

University of Phoenix

Ms. Nancy Lee
University of Nevada

Dr. Elke M. Leeds
Kennesaw State University


Dr. Amanda E. Major
University of Central Florida

Christopher Mathews-Smith M.A.
Emory University

Dr. Jennifer McLean
Pennsylvania College of Technology

COL Philip A. McNair (USA, ret.)
American Public University System

Dr. Marc D. Miller
Augusta State University

Dr. Nancy Griffin Mims, Ed.D.
University of West Georgia

Dr. Mary Jo Muratore
University of Missouri - Columbia

Anna Obedkova
University of Texas of Arlington

Dr. Abbot L. Packard
University of West Georgia

Dr. Angie Parker
Northcentral University

Dr. Shawn M. Quilter
Eastern Michigan University

Dr. Ravic P. Ringlaben
University of West Georgia

Dr. Michael Rogers
Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the
University System of Georgia


Dr. Beth Rene Roepnack
University of West Georgia Associate Director of Online Faculty Development
University of West Georgia

Dr. Peter J. Shapiro
Director of Creative Learning Services
Florida State College at Jacksonville

Dr. LeAnn McKinzie Thomason
Brownsville, Texas

Mitzi P. Trahan, Ph.D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Thomas J. Tobin
Author and Speaker

Dr. Joann Kroll Wheeler
Texas A & M University

Past OJDLA Editors
Dr. Stephen J. Anspacher
The New School

Dr. Michael Beaudoin
University of New England

Dr. Elizabeth Bennett
University of West Georgia

Janet Gubbins
University of West Georgia

Ms. Tammy Hamm-Ronsisvalle
Synergy Plus Inc.

Rayma Harchar, Ed. D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Nataliya V. Ivankova
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Kathleen A. Kraus
State University of New York at New Paltz

Dr. Dwight Laws
Brigham Young University

Dr. George E. Marsh II
The University of Alabama


Dr. Barbara K. McKenzie
University of West Georgia

Dr. Paul F. Merrill
Brigham Young University

Mr. Bob Reese
Reese Consulting Associates, Inc.

Dr. M. D. Roblyer
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga

Mr. Timothy W. Seid
Earlham School of Religion

Dr. Barbara L. Watkins
University of Kansas

Current Issue

Distance Education Readiness Assessments: An Overview and Application

Carolyn Gascoigne,
Juliette Parnell

by Carolyn G ascoigne
Juliette Parnell

With the rise in online and hybrid courses at the post-secondary level, many institutions are offering various online learning readiness assessments to students who are considering these instructional formats. Following a discussion of the characteristics often attributed to successful online learners, as well as a review of a sample of the publicly available online readiness surveys, an application of one representative tool is described. Specifically, the Distance Education Aptitude and Readiness Scale was administered in both hybrid and face-to-face sections of beginning post-secondary French across a two-year span. Differences in scores between groups, as well as the relationship between scores and grades are examined.

Exploring the Relationship between Military Service and Performance in Online Classes

Guy H. Downs,
Dorothy K. McAllen

by Guy H. Downs
Dorothy K. McAllen

Universities have witnessed the consistent growth of increased college-level distance education programs with 32 percent of all students having taken at least one online course (Allen & Seaman, 2013). Key to this continued growth, however, is understanding the factors that contribute to the greatest growth and success in these programs. Researchers have identified a growing sub-population of non-traditional students – military Veterans, where universities have specifically seen a dramatic growth in enrollment (Lighthall, 2012). This study examined the relationship between military service and academic performance in distance learning courses offered entirely online. We conducted an Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS) regression, using grade point average in online classes as the dependent variable and Veteran status as the explanatory variable, and found that Veteran status has a positive, statistically significant relationship with academic performance in the online classroom.

From Needs Assessment to Communities of Practice for Online Continuing-Education Programming

Alaina Feltenberger Beaver

by Alaina Feltenberger Beaver
Fenimore Johnson
Caroline Sinkinson

This study identifies the professional development needs of instructors teaching online using quantitative and qualitative methods. Twenty-six participants from a convenience sample at the University of Colorado, Boulder’s Division of Continuing Education (CE) were surveyed in a Faculty Needs Assessment (FNA) that was open to participants from September to October of 2013, and six of those participants self-selected into an open focus group interview in November 2013. Survey participants were asked questions about skills and knowledge gaps, learning preferences, and other support needed to help advance their professional development. Focus group participants were interviewed to provide further detail about the themes that emerged from the survey. The findings revealed specific pedagogy and technology training needs, platform preferences for the delivery of training and community engagement, and barriers to professional development. The results of the study provide direction on designing a learning and performance strategy to meet instructors’ professional development needs.

Cyber-bullying in the Online Classroom: Instructor Perceptions of Aggressive Student Behavior
Michael T. Eskey, Cathy L. Taylor, Michael T. Eskey, Jr.

by Michael T. Eskey
Cathy L. Taylor
Michael T. Eskey, Jr.

The advent of online learning has created the medium for cyber-bullying in the virtual classroom and also by e-mail. Bullying is usually expected in the workplace and between students in the classroom. Most recently, however, faculty members have become surprising targets of online bullying. For many, there are no established policies nor is training provided on how to react. The current research defines the problem, reviews the findings of a cyber-bullying survey, and explores recommendations for addressing cyber-bullying through policies, training, and professional development.

Using Games in Online Education: Is it a Winning Strategy?
Phu Vu, Sherry R. Crow,
Scott Fredrickson

by Phu Vu
Sherry R. Crow
Scott Fredrickson

This study examined the impact of adding game elements on students’ performances in an online learning setting. Two intact online graduate level course sections were chosen for this study. Each course sections had 18 students. The results of the study showed that there were significant differences in the time students spent in their courses and the number of posts between the course section with the game elements (treatment group) and the course section with the traditional design. However, there was no significant difference in grades students achieved in the course section with the game elements and the course section with the traditional design. The study was concluded with discussions and suggestions for further studies.

A Model of Leadership in Integrating Educational Technology in Higher Education

Mariya Markova

by Mariya Markova

The potential impacts and implications of technology on the professional lives of instructors in higher education, and the role of leadership in integrating educational technology, present a variety of complexities and challenges. The purpose of this paper is to identify the reasons why faculty members are not fully embracing technology and what leadership exists in those institutions to help instructors adapt to technology in the teaching and learning process. The authors examine instructor’s perceptions and attitudes related to educational technology as it applies to the learning process and investigated the organization-wide view of leadership in the education institutions. The authors also developed a theoretical model for how leadership can be applied in the use of educational technology in higher education. The model contains five major blocks. In addition to the concerns of higher education faculty, this paper also considers the impact educational technologies have on instruction itself and why many faculty members view the technology as being too difficult to apply to existing technology infrastructure.

From the Editor

Melanie ClayGreetings, OJDLA Friends:

As the year comes to a close, I'm feeling rather reflective about 2014. There has been much good - so much good. We've seen a sharper focus on the quality of online teaching and student success than we ever have before. The MOOC hype has settled down to something more reasonable, and there appears to be some hope in the distance for reciprocity in distance learning state authorizations in the United States. As those of us who have been in distance learning for many years have grown up and matured (maybe even graying a bit), so has online learning. And with this age comes wisdom - hopefully without the spirit of innovation.

2014 also represented a lot of angst in the world, not so much for online learning but for education in general, civility and world peace. Never can I remember a time of so much unrest and uncertainty. I will always believe that many of society's problems can be reduced through education. Let us resolve to continue our good work in 2015, increasing our passion to make quality education affordable and accessible to all.

Today (December 15) is also the last day for proposals for the DLA Conference in Jekyll Island in June. If you are reading this late, you can still submit an abstract and be put on a waiting list. We also have a small handful of opportunities for Flashtalk presentations for our Conference on Meaningful Living and Learning in Savannah in May. Hope to see you there.

Peace to All,

Melanie N. Clay, Ph.D.
December 15, 2014


A special thanks to Thinking Cap for being the premiere sponsor of DLA2013!

To be notified of future publications contact the UWG Distance & Distributed Education Center

Last modified: December 15, 2014>