Fall 2021 - Volume 24 Issue 3


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The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration is a peer-reviewed electronic journal offered free each quarter over the World Wide Web. The journal welcomes manuscripts based on original work of practitioners and researchers with specific focus or implications for the management of distance education programs. Click here to access our readership stats.
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Events & Learning

Meaningful Living and Learning in a Digital World
Savannah, Georgia
February 28th - March 2nd, 2022

Distance Learning Administration Conference
 Jekyll Island, Georgia 
July 24-27, 2022

Thanks to the
University of West Georgia
for providing this webspace

Editorial Board

Dr. Melanie Clay
University of West Georgia

Managing Editor
Ms. Rebecca Smith
University of West Georgia

Associate Editor
Ms. Julie Stone Ingle
University of West Georgia

Editorial Board
Dr. Mac Adkins


Christopher L. A. Ahlstrom
University of Maryland Global Campus

David Babb
University of North Georgia

Mr. R. Thomas Berner
Pennsylvania State University


Dr. Diane M. Burnette
South Carolina State University

Dr. Jason G. Caudill
King University

Mr. Matthew N. Clay
University of West Georgia

Dr. Sherry A. Clouser
University of Georgia

Bradly Corlett
Director of Naval Requirements

Canadian Armed Forces

Dr. Ken Corley
Appalachian State University

Dr. Jeanne Catanzaro
Washburn University

Dr. Micheal Crafton
University of North Georgia

Dr. Robert N. Diotalevi
Florida Gulf Coast University

Ms. Beth Evans
Brooklyn College

Janet Gubbins
University of West Georgia

Dr. Cher C. Hendricks
The University of Akron

Dr. Katy Herbold
Southern Utah University

Dr. Scott L. Howell
Brigham Young University

Dr. Jason B. Huett
University of West Georgia

Dr. Thomas J. Hynes
Clayton State University

Dr. Tressa Kelly
University of West Georgia

Dr. Irene Kokkala
University of North Georgia

Dr. Sarah Kuck

Albany State University

Dr. Andrew Leavitt
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh


Dr. Lauryl A. Lefebvre

University of Phoenix

COL Philip A. McNair (USA, ret.)
American Public University System

Dr. Anna Obedkova
Towson University

Dr. Abbot L. Packard
University of West Georgia


Dr. Anthony Piña
Sullivan University

Dr. Michael Rogers
University of North Georgia


Dr. Beth Rene Roepnack
University of West Georgia, USG eCampus Senior Academic Instructional Support Specialist

Dr. Peter J. Shapiro
Florida State College at Jacksonville

Melanie Shaw
Northcentral University

Mitzi P. Trahan, Ph.D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Dr. Thomas J. Tobin
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Randal H. Wilson, Ph.D., Ed.D.
Murray State University

Past OJDLA Editors

Dr. Stephen J. Anspacher
The New School

Dr. Michael Beaudoin
University of New England

Dr. Elizabeth Bennett
University of West Georgia


Dr. Kris Biesinger
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia


Erik Burns
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Dr. Beverly L. Bower
University of North Texas

Dr. W. Dean Care
Brandon University


Yong Chen
Old Dominion University

Dr. Muhammet Demirbilek
Suleyman Demirel University, Turkey

Dr. R.-L. Etienne Barnett University of Atlanta (US) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France)

Dr. Catherine L. Finnegan Advanced Learning Technologies,
Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia

Dr. Larry V. Flegle
American Military University

Ms. Tammy Hamm-Ronsisvalle
Synergy Plus Inc.

Rayma Harchar, Ed. D.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette


Mrs. Laurie G. Hillstock
Virginia Tech

Dr. Cathy Hochanadel
Purdue University Global

Dr. Genell Hooper Harris
Centenary College of Louisiana

Dr. Nataliya V. Ivankova
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Sallie J. Johnson
USAF Air University, Air Command and Staff College


Dr. Harold J. Kearsley
Norwich University

Dr. John J. Ketterer
Jacksonville State University

Dr. James W. King
University of Nebraska-Lincoln


James Kinneer
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Dr. Kathleen A. Kraus
State University of New York at New Paltz

Olabisi Kuboni (retired)
The University of West Indies

Dr. Sally Kuhlenschmidt
Western Kentucky University

Ms. Elizabeth D. Larzelere M.S.
New York Chiropractic College

Melissa Layne
American Public University System

Dr. Dwight Laws
Brigham Young University

Ms. Nancy Lee
University of Nevada

Dr. Elke M. Leeds
Western Governors University

Dr. Amanda E. Major
University of Central Florida

Christopher Mathews-Smith M.A.
Emory University

Dr. George E. Marsh II
The University of Alabama


Dr. Barbara K. McKenzie
University of West Georgia

Dr. Jennifer McLean
Pennsylvania College of Technology

Dr. Paul F. Merrill
Brigham Young University

Dr. Marc D. Miller
Henderson State University

Dr. Nancy Griffin Mims, Ed.D.
University of West Georgia

Dr. Mary Jo Muratore
University of Missouri - Columbia

Dr. Angie Parker
Northcentral University

Dr. Shawn M. Quilter
Eastern Michigan University

Mr. Bob Reese
Reese Consulting Associates, Inc.

Dr. Ravic P. Ringlaben
University of West Georgia

Dr. M. D. Roblyer
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga

Mr. Timothy W. Seid
Earlham School of Religion

Angela Solic
Rush University


Dr. LeAnn McKinzie Thomason
Brownsville, Texas

Dr. Barbara L. Watkins
University of Kansas


Dr. Joann Kroll Wheeler
Texas A & M University


Original articles up to 6500 (normally between 2000 and 6000) words required. We welcome practical distance education management ideas as well as more theoretical works. Articles should be submitted electronically, as HTML documents, or as Microsoft Word files. Graphics should be either in Gif or JPEG format. All tables should be formatted using the Table tool (versus using tabs). Manuscripts can be submitted in WordPerfect or Microsoft Word. All submissions should be preceded by a header containing the title of the manuscript, the name(s) of the author, any affiliations , mail, and e-mail addresses, and telephone numbers. As much as possible typescript should conform to the style set forth in the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association.

The Editor-in-Chief may decline to consider a manuscript for several reasons, including inadequate evidence that the method is substantially new and promising, poor preparation, an insufficiently clear and detailed presentation, and a lack of adherence to the journal's guidelines for manuscript preparation. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject manuscripts not clearly about distance learning administration, as space permits. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to make the final decision when conflicts of editorial opinion arise. Once a manuscript has been accepted for consideration, it will be assigned to the Managing Editor for distribution to reviewers. Articles will be reviewed blindly by two or three persons with expertise in the area.

Submission Deadline Reviews Due Back Target Publish Date
Spring Edition  February 15 March 1 March 15
Summer Edition  May 15 June 1 June 15
Fall Edition August 15 September 1 September 15
Winter Edition November 15 December 1 December 15

Articles may be submitted to https://podio.com/webforms/8546531/635852.


Authors retain the copyright for material published in The Online
Journal of Distance Learning Administration, including but not limited to all rights to authorize subsequent publication and/or translation. Any factual inaccuracies or opinions expressed therein are the authors' own, and do not necessarily reflect the knowledge, views, or positions of the University of West Georgia, any of the university's units, or The Journal's editors.

Material appearing in The Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration may be distributed freely by electronic or any other means, providing that any such distribution is without charge (unless for purposes of cost recovery by interlibrary loan services) and that The Journal is acknowledged as the source. However, no article may be reprinted in any publication without the explicit written permission of the author(s).