Plagiarism & Citation Styles
What is Plagiarism?
The simplified definition for plagiarism is the copying and borrowing of another's original ideas and/or words. Plagiarism occurs with the inclusion of material not explicitly cited as well as with collaborative work from another student willfully or otherwise.
Penalties for Plagiarism
Each incidence of plagiarism is subject to review and consideration by the instructor, and is subject to a range of penalties including but not limited to failing the assignment, failing the course, and referral to the disciplinary review board (which may ultimately result in the expulsion, suspension, or disciplinary removal of the student from the university).
Plagiarism and Citation ResourcesSub-Heading
- Plagiarism.org: website dedicated to the multifaceted interpretations of incorrect citations.
- Plagiarism Tutorial from the University of Southern Mississippi contains explanations for each step needed to prevent plagiarism as well as two interactive quizzes.
- What is Plagiarism? from Rutgers University: this is an informative yet humorous introduction to plagiarism including tips to improve your writing in an effort to avoid plagiarism. The tutorial consists of two flash movies and a quiz to test your understanding of the content.
- Acknowledging Sources from University Of Texas, Arlington: includes examples of plagiarism in real life and outside of the classroom (like the New York Times and government documents).
- Avoiding Plagiarism: What Do I Need to Cite? from Iowa State University
- Plagiarism Game: This game created by Lycoming College tests your knowledge of plagiarism in a fun, interactive way. You can print the last screen as proof of completion.
American Psychological Association (APA) Style
APA is utilized primarily by psychology, sociology, political science, communications, education, and business.
Difference between MLA and APA
- Due to the fields of study that utilize the style, APA emphasizes the year of publication with the author’s last name. MLA does not prioritize information by publication year but by the relevance of said information; in other words, a 1940’s study about Shakespeare can still contain relevant information for an academic paper.
- Years of Preference: APA prioritizes the most recent published information while MLA prefers information spanning the last decade.
- Official Resources for APA Style from the American Psychological Association
- Amazon link to purchase: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Seventh Edition)
The Purdue Online Writing Lab
Chicago (CMS) / Turabian Style
Chicago is utilized primarily by History, Art, Philosophy, Business, and Communication.
- Online Chicago Manual of Style
- University of Chicago Press offers a guide to citation in Turabian style.
- Bridgewater State University offers a quick reference for Chicago and Turabian Style Footnotes and Bibliographic Entries.
- Ibid resource from Western Oregon University
- Amazon links for purchase:
The Purdue Online Writing Lab
Purdue University offers a comprehensive guide to CMS style as well as a sample paper.
American Sociological Association (ASA) Style
ASA is a variation of APA style.
- The Owl at Purdue University manuscript formatting in Sociology.
- The American Sociological Association offers a short handout outline APA: Quick Tips for ASA Style (pdf).
- ASA Style (pdf) formatting from the Department of Sociology at Harvard University
- Amazon link to purchase the manual: American Sociological Association Style Guide
American Political Science Association (APSA) Style
The most recent APSA Style Manual (2006) asks writers to use the parenthetical documentation system in the Chicago Manual of Style (not the note system) for documentation in political science writing.
- APSA Style Manual (pdf)
- APSA Style Guide for Citations and References (pdf) from UNT's Department of Political Science
- Amazon link to purchase the manual: Style Manual for Political Science
Council of Science Editors (CSE)
- University of Wisconsin's guide to the CSE Documentation Style.
- Amazon link to purchase the manual: Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, Eighth Edition
Associated Press (AP) Style
- Zotero is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share research.